|CLASS 1 - EXPLOSIVES
1. Explosive substances (a substance which is not itself
an explosive but which can form an explosive atmosphere of gas,
vapour or dust is not included in class 1), except those which are
too dangerous to transport or those where the predominant hazard
is one appropriate to another class;
2. Explosive articles, except devices containing explosive
substances in such quantity or of such a character that their inadvertent
or accidental ignition or initiation during transport should not
cause any effect external to the device either by projection, fire,
smoke, heat or loud noise; and
3. Substances and articles not mentioned under .1 and .2,
which are manufactured with a view to producing a practical, explosive
or pyrotechnic effect.
Transport of explosive substances, which are unduly sensitive, or
so reactive as to be subject to spontaneous reaction, is prohibited.
For the purposes of this Code, the following definitions apply:
1. Explosive substance means a solid or liquid substance
(or a mixture of substances), which is in itself capable by chemical
reaction of producing gas at such a temperature and pressure and
at such a speed as to cause damage to the surroundings. Pyrotechnic
substances are included even when they do not evolve gases.
2. Pyrotechnic substance means a substance or a mixture of
substances designed to produce an effect by heat, light, sound,
gas or smoke or a combination of these as the result of non-detonative
self-sustaining exothermic chemical reactions.
3. Explosive article means an article containing one or more
4. Mass explosion means one which affects almost the entire
load virtually instantaneously.
1.2 Hazard divisions: The six hazard
divisions of class 1 are:
Division 1.1 Substances and articles that have a mass explosion
Division 1.2 Substances and articles that have a projection
hazard but not a mass explosion hazard
Division 1.3 Substances and articles that have a fire hazard
and either a minor blast hazard or a minor rojection hazard or
both, but not a mass explosion hazard
This division comprises substances and articles:
1. which give rise to considerable radiant heat; or
2. which burn one after another, producing minor blast or
projection effects or both.
Division 1.4 Substances and articles that present no significant
hazardThis division comprises substances and articles that present
only a small hazard in the event of ignition or initiation during
transport. The effects are largely confined to the package and no
projection of fragments of appreciable size or range is to be expected.
An external fire must not cause virtually instantaneous explosion
of almost the entire contents of the package.
Note: Substances and articles
in this division are in compatibility group S if they are so packaged
or designed that any hazardous effects arising from the accidental
functioning are confined within the package unless the package has
been degraded by fire, in which case all blast or projection effects
are limited to the extent that they do not significantly hinder
fire fighting or other emergency response efforts in the immediate
vicinity of the package.
Division 1.5 Very insensitive substances that have a mass
explosion hazardThis division comprises substances that have a mass
explosion hazard but are so insensitive that there is very little
probability of initiation or of transition from burning to detonation
under normal conditions of transport.
Note: The probability of transition
from burning to detonation is greater when large quantities are
transported in a ship. As a consequence, the stowage provisions
for explosive substances in division 1.1 and for those in division
1.5 are identical.
Division 1.6 Extremely insensitive articles that do not have
a mass explosion hazardThis division comprises articles which contain
only extremely insensitive detonating substances and which demonstrate
a negligible probability of accidental initiation or propagation.
Note: The risk from articles
of division 1.6 is limited to the explosion of a single article.
2 - GASES
2.1 A gas is a substance which:
1. at 50¡ãC has a vapour pressure greater than 300 kPa; or
2. is completely gaseous at 20¡ãC at a standard pressure of
2.2 The transport condition of gas is
described according to its physical state as:
1. Compressed gas - a gas (other than in solution) which, when
packaged under pressure for transport, is entirely gaseous at 20¡ãC;
2. Liquefied gas - a gas which, when packaged for transport,
is partially liquid at 20¡ãC;
3. Refrigerated liquefied gas - a gas which, when packaged
for transport, is made partially liquid because of its low temperature;
orRefrigerant means a gas used as a cooling substance in the refrigeration
process, such as refrigerating machinery UN 2857 in this case..4 Gas
in solution - compressed gas which, when packaged for transport, is
dissolved in a solvent.
2.2.1 This class comprises compressed gases; liquefied gases;
gases in solution; refrigerated liquefied gases; mixtures of gases;
mixtures of one or more gases with one or more vapours or substances
of other classes; articles charged with a gas; tellurium hexafluoride;
2.3 Class subdivisionsClass 2 is subdivided
further according to the primary hazard of the gas during transport,
2.3.1 Class 2.1 Flammable gases
Gases which at 20¡ãC and a standard pressure of 101.3 kPa:
1. are ignitable when in a mixture of 13% or less by volume
with air; or
2.have a flammable range with air of at least 12 percentage
points regardless of the lower flammable limit. Flammability should
be determined by tests or calculation in accordance with methods adopted
by the International Organization for Standardization (see ISO standard
10156:1996). Where insufficient data are available to use these methods,
tests by a comparable method recognized by a national competent authority
may be used.
Note: UN 1950 AEROSOLS and UN
2037 RECEPTACLES, SMALL, CONTAINING GAS (GAS CARTRIDGES) should be
regarded as being in class 2.1 when the criteria in Special Provision
63 in 3.3.1 of IMDG Code 2000 Edition are met.
2.3.2 Class 2.2 Non-flammable, non-toxic gasesGases which are
transported at a pressure not less than 280 kPa at 20¡ãC, or as refrigerated
liquids, and which:.1 are asphyxiant - gases which dilute or replace
the oxygen normally in the atmosphere; or.2 are oxidizing - gases
which may, generally by providing oxygen, cause or contribute to the
combustion of other material more than air does; or.3 do not come
under the other classes.
2.3.3 Class 2.3 Toxic gases Gases which:
1. are known to be so toxic or corrosive to humans as to pose
a hazard to health; or
2. are presumed to be toxic or corrosive to humans because
they have a LC50 value (as defined in 18.104.22.168 of IMDG Code 2000 Edition)
equal to or less than 5,000 ml/m3 (ppm).
Note: Gases meeting the above
criteria owing to their corrosivity are to be classified as toxic
with a subsidiary corrosive risk.
3 - FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS
3.1 Class 3 includes the following substances:
1. Flammable liquids
2. Liquid desensitized explosives
3.1.1 Flammable liquids are liquids, or mixtures of liquids,
or liquids containing solids in solution or suspension (such as paints,
varnishes, lacquers, etc., but not including substances which, on
account of their other dangerous characteristics, have been included
in other classes) which give off a flammable vapour at or below 61¡ãC
closed cup test (corresponding to 65.6¡ãC open cup test), normally
referred to as the flashpoint. This also includes:
1.Liquids offered for transport at temperatures at or above
their flashpoint; and
2. Substances transported or offered for transport at elevated
temperatures in a liquid state, which give off a flammable vapour
at temperatures equal to or below the maximum transport temperature
3.1.2 However, the provisions of this Code need not apply to
such liquids with a flashpoint of more than 35¡ãC which do not sustain
combustion. Liquids are considered to be unable to sustain combustion
for the purposes of the Code if:
1. they have passed the suitable combustibility test (see the
Sustained Combustibility Test prescribed in Part III, chapter 32.5.2
of the United Nations Manual of Test and Criteria); or
2. their fire point according to ISO 2592:1973 is greater than
3. they are water-miscible solutions with a water content of
more than 90%, by mass.
3.1.3 Liquid desensitized explosives are explosive substances
which are dissolved or suspended in water or other liquid substances,
to form a homogeneous liquid mixture to suppress their explosives
properties. Entries in the Dangerous Goods List for liquid desensitized
explosives are: UN 1204, UN 2059, UN 3064 and UN 3343.
3.2 Hazard grouping based on flammability
Flammable liquids are grouped for packing purposes according to their
flashpoint, their boiling point, and their viscosity. This table shows
the relationship between two of these characteristics.
||Flashpoint in ¡ãC closed cup
||Initial boiling point in ¡ãC
||¡Ý 23 to ¡Ü 61
4 - FLAMMABLE SOLIDS; SUBSTANCES LIABLE TO SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION;
SUBSTANCES WHICH, IN CONTACT WITH WATER, EMIT FLAMMABLE GASES
4.1 In this Code, class 4 deals with
substances, other than those classified as explosives, which, under
conditions of transport, are readily combustible or may cause or contribute
to a fire. Class 4 is subdivided as follows:
Class 4.1 Flammable solids
Solids which, under conditions encountered in transport, are readily
combustible or may cause or contribute to fire through friction; self-reactive
substances (solids and liquids) which are liable to undergo a strongly
exothermic reaction; solid desensitized explosives which may explode
if not diluted sufficiently;
Class 4.2 Substances liable to spontaneous combustion
Substances (solids and liquids) which are liable to spontaneous heating
under normal conditions encountered in transport, or to heating up
in contact with air, and being then liable to catch fire;
Class 4.3 Substances which, in contact with water, emit flammable
Substances (solids and liquids) which, by interaction with water,
are liable to become spontaneously flammable or to give off flammable
gases in dangerous quantities.
4.2 As referenced in this chapter, test
methods and criteria, with advice on application of the tests, are
given in the United Nations Manual of Tests and Criteria, for the
classification of following types of substances of class 4:
1. Flammable solids (class 4.1);
2. Self-reactive substances (class 4.1);
3. Pyrophoric solids (class 4.2);
4. Pyrophoric liquids (class 4.2);
5. Self-heating substances (class 4.2); and
6.Substances which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases
Test methods and criteria for self-reactive substances are given in
Part II of the United Nations Manual of Tests and Criteria, and test
methods and criteria for the other types of substances of class 4
are given in the United Nations Manual of Tests and Criteria, Part
III, chapter 33.
5 - OXIDIZING SUBSTANCES AND ORGANIC PEROXIDES
5. In this Code, class 5 is divided into
two classes as follows:
Class 5.1 Oxidizing substances
Substances which, while in themselves not necessarily combustible,
may, generally by yielding oxygen, cause, or contribute to, the combustion
of other material. Such substances may be contained in an article;
Class 5.2 Organic peroxides
Organic substances which contain the bivalent -O-O- structure and
may be considered derivatives of hydrogen peroxide, where one or both
of the hydrogen atoms have been replaced by organic radicals. Organic
peroxides are thermally unstable substances which may undergo exothermic
self-accelerating decomposition. In addition, they may have one or
more of the following properties:
- be liable to explosive decomposition;
- burn rapidly;
- be sensitive to impact or friction;
- react dangerously with other substances;
- cause damage to the eyes.
6 - TOXIC AND INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES
6. Class 6 is subdivided into two classes
Class 6.1 Toxic substances
These are substances liable either to cause death or serious injury
or to harm human health if swallowed or inhaled, or by skin contact.
Class 6.2 Infectious substances
These are substances known or reasonably expected to contain pathogens.
Pathogens are defined as micro-organisms (including bacteria, viruses,
rickettsiae, parasites, fungi) or recombinant micro-organisms (hybrid
or mutant), that are known or reasonably expected to cause infectious
disease in animals or humans.
Note 1: However, they are not
subject to the provisions of this class if they are unlikely to cause
human or animal disease.
Note 2: Infectious substances
are subject to the provisions of this class if they are capable of
spreading disease when exposure to them occurs.
7 - RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL
7.1 Radioactive material means any material
containing radionuclides where both the activity concentration and
the total activity in the consignment exceed the values.
7.1.1 The following radioactive materials are not included
in class 7 for the purposes of this Code:
(a) radioactive material that is an integral part of the means of
(b) radioactive material moved within an establishment which is subject
to appropriate safety regulations in force in the establishment and
where the movement does not involve public roads or railways;
(c) radioactive material implanted or incorporated into a person or
live animal for diagnosis or treatment;
(d) radioactive material in consumer products which have received
regulatory approval, following their sale to the end user;
(e) natural material and ores containing naturally occurring radionuclides
which are not intended to be processed for use of these radionuclides
provided the activity concentration of the material does not exceed
10 times the values specified.
7.2 Packages and overpacks should be assigned to either category
I - WHITE, II - YELLOW or III - YELLOW in accordance with the conditions
specified in the table hereunder and with the following provisions:
(a) For a package or overpack, both the transport index and the surface
radiation level conditions should be taken into account in determining
which is the appropriate category. Where the transport index satisfies
the condition for one category but the surface radiation level satisfies
the condition for a different category, the package or overpack should
be assigned to the higher category. For this purpose, category I -
WHITE should be regarded as the lowest category.
(b) The transport index should be determined following the procedures
(c) If the surface radiation level is greater than 2 mSv/h, the package
or overpack should be transported under exclusive use and under the
provisions as appropriate.
(d) A package transported under a special arrangement should be assigned
to category III - YELLOW.(e) An overpack which contains packages transported
under special arrangement should be assigned to category III - YELLOW.
Transport index Maximum radiation level at any point on external surface
0aNot more than 0.005 mSv/h I - WHITE
|CATEGORIES OF PACKAGES AND OVERPACKS
||Maximum radiation level
at any point on external surface
||Not more than 0.005 mSv/h
||I - WHITE
|More than 0 but not
||More than 0.005 mSv/h but
||II - YELLOW
|more than 1a
||more than 0.5 mSv/h
More than 1 but not more than 10
|More than 0.5 mSv/h but
not more than 2 mSv/h
||III - YELLOW
|More than 10
||More than 2 mSv/h but not
more than 10 mSv/h
III - YELLOWb
|a If the measured TI is
not greater than 0.05, the value quoted may be zero.b Should
also be transported under exclusive use.
8 - CORROSIVE SUBSTANCES
8.1 Class 8 substances (corrosive substances)
means substances which, by chemical action, will cause severe damage
when in contact with living tissue or, in the case of leakage, will
materially damage, or even destroy, other goods or the means of transport.
8.2 Assignment of packing groups
8.2.1 Substances and preparations of class 8 are divided among
the three packing groups according to their degree of hazard in transport
Packing group I: Very dangerous substances and preparations;
Packing group II: Substances and preparations presenting medium
Packing group III: Substances and preparations presenting minor
The packing group to which a substance has been assigned is given
in the Dangerous Goods List in chapter 3.2. of IMDG Code 2000 Edition
9 - MISCELLANEOUS DANGEROUS SUBSTANCES AND ARTICLES
9.1 Class 9 substances and articles (miscellaneous
dangerous substances and articles) comprise:
1. Substances and articles not covered by other classes which
experience has shown, or may show, to be of such a dangerous character
that the provisions of part A of chapter VII of SOLAS, 1974, as amended,
should apply; these include substances that are transported or offered
for transport at temperatures equal to. or exceeding 100¡ãC, in a liquid
state, and solids that are transported or offered for transport at
temperatures equal to or exceeding 240¡ãC; and.
2. Substances not subject to the provisions of part A in chapter
VII of the aforementioned Convention, but to which the provisions
of Annex III of MARPOL 73/78, as amended, apply. The properties or
characteristics of each substance are given in the Dangerous Goods
List in chapter 3.2 of IMDG Code 2000 Edition pertaining to the substance
of packing groups to miscellaneous dangerous substances and articles
9.2.1 The substances and articles of this class have, for packing
purposes, been assigned to packing group II and packing group III.
The packing group to which a substance or article is assigned is given
in the Dangerous Goods List in chapter 3.2. of IMDG Code 2000 Edition
9.2.2 No grouping criteria have been developed for this class.
The packing groups of the substances and articles have, therefore,
been assigned on the basis of assimilation with goods having similar
properties and characteristics.